Pest – анализ. Pest анализ теле2


PEST Analysis (Анализ PEST) - Центр Знаний

Что такое Анализ  PEST? Описание

Анализ PEST - концепция, которую консультанты стратегии используют для анализа внешней макро-среды фирмы. PEST - это акроним от следующих факторов:

  • Политический (Political)

  • Экономический (Economic)

  • Социальный (Social)

  • Технологический (Technological)

Факторы PEST играют важную роль с точки зрения стратегических возможностей создания ценности. Однако они обычно находятся вне контроля корпорации и должны рассматриваться либо как угрозы, либо как возможности. Необходимо помнить, что макроэкономические факторы могут отличаться в зависимости от континента, страны или даже региона, поэтому обычно анализ PEST проводится в рамках страны.

В таблице приведены примеры каждого из этих факторов.

Политический (вкл. Правовой)
Экономический (Economic)
Социальный (Social)
Технологический (Technological)

Регулятивная среда и гарантии

Экономический рост

Распределение доходов

Государственные расходы на научные исследования

Налоговая политика

Процентные ставки и кредитно-денежная политика

Демографические показатели, темпы роста населения, распределение по возрастным группам

Фокус отрасли на технологическое развитие

Регулирование и ограничения международной торговли

Государственные расходы

Трудовая/социальная мобильность

Новые изобретения и развитие

Законодательство, обеспечивающее принудительное осуществление условий договора

Защита потребителя

Политика в отношении безработицы

Изменения в стилях жизни

Динамика передачи технологий

Трудовое право

Налогообложение

Отношения к работе/карьере и отдыху

Предпринимательский дух

Жизненный цикл и скорость технологического устаревания

Правительственная организация/отношение

Валютные курсы

Образование

Использование энергоресурсов и затраты

Регулирование конкуренции

Уровень инфляции

Мода, увлечения

(Изменения в) IT

Политическая стабильность

Стадия экономического цикла

Сознание благополучия и благосостояния, чувство безопасности

(Изменения в) Internet

Правила безопасности

Ожидания потребителей

Жизненные условия

(Изменения в) мобильных технологиях

 

Выполнение Анализf PEST относительно просто, и может быть реализовано с помощью семинаров, использующих метод мозгового штурма. Применение анализа PEST может различаться по следующим направлениям: компания и стратегическое планирование, планирование маркетинга, развитие бизнеса и продукта и отчёты о научно-исследовательской работе.

Варианты Анализf PEST

Иногда применяется расширенный формат, например, SLEPT Analysis (Анализ SLEPT) (плюс Правовой фактор) или STEEPLE Analysis (Анализ STEEPLE): Социальный/демографический, Технологический, Экономический, Окружающая среда (природный), Политический, Правовой и Этический факторы. Также географические факторы могут быть важны.

Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers

error '8007000e'

[Microsoft][ODBC Microsoft Access Driver] Not enough space on temporary disk.

/menu_comments.asp, line 152 Failed to execute script: Http Status Code = 500

Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers

error '8007000e'

[Microsoft][ODBC Microsoft Access Driver] Not enough space on temporary disk.

/menu_expert_tips.asp, line 810 Failed to execute script: Http Status Code = 500

Microsoft OLE DB Provider for ODBC Drivers

error '8007000e'

[Microsoft][ODBC Microsoft Access Driver] Not enough space on temporary disk.

/menu_resources.asp, line 1275 Failed to execute script: Http Status Code = 500

Сравните с: SWOT Analysis (SWOT-анализ)  |  OODA Loop (Цикл OODA)  |  Simulation (Имитационное моделирование)  |  Five Competitive Forces (Пять конкурентных сил)  |  Stakeholder Analysis (Анализ заинтересованных кругов)  |  Stakeholder Mapping (Систематизация заинтересованных сторон)  |  Benchmarking (Бенчмаркинг)  |  Scenario Planning (Планирование сценариев)  |  Diamond Model (Модель конкурентного ромба)  |  Strategic Risk Management (Стратегическое управление рисками)

Возврат на главную страницу: Финансы и Инвестиции  |  Знания и Нематериальные активы  |   Маркетинг  |  Стратегия

Больше: Методы, Модели и Теории Менеджмента

www.12manage.com

Анализ PEST для Стратегического Планирования и Экологического Сканирования

При подготовке к будущему компании участвуют в стратегическом планировании. Этот процесс рассматривает факторы как внутри, так и вне компании, и часто использует SWOT- анализ или аналогичную структуру для организации генерируемой информации. Стратегическое планирование, рассматривающее внешние факторы, называется сканированием среды .

Анализ PEST является краеугольным камнем экологического сканирования. Как и пять сил Портера , анализ PEST выглядит вне организации в окружающей среде. Однако, в отличие от пяти сил, которые концентрируются на отрасли, которая окружает компанию, анализ PEST рассматривает крупномасштабную (макро) среду за пределами отрасли. Подобно Пяти Силам, PEST соответствует возможностям и угрозам в SWOT.

Что такое PEST?

Как SWOT-анализ, PEST содержит четыре компонента: P olitical, E conomic, S ocial / Cultural и T echnological. Эти четыре категории описывают общую картину того, где находится бизнес, обычно на национальном или региональном уровне. Особенно важно учитывать долгосрочные тенденции в анализе ПЭСТ, поскольку они могут быть более очевидными в мире в целом, прежде чем их воздействие скажется на конкретных отраслях.

п Политические E Экономический S Социальная / Культурная T Технологический
Политическое относится не к справедливым выборам, а к более широкому влиянию правительства на бизнес-среду. Это включает в себя все: от требований к маркировке до риска военного вторжения. Существующее и предстоящее законодательство, особенно касающееся налогообложения, заработной платы или интеллектуальной собственности, может оказать существенное влияние на деловую практику. Для многих анализов «политический» также охватывает подход чужой страны к верховенству закона, имущественным правам и коррупции.
Экономические соображения в первую очередь ориентированы на макроэкономику. Хотя SWOT может изучать вопросы микроэкономики, такие как эластичность или эффективность, роль PEST заключается в том, чтобы шире смотреть на экономическую среду. Доступность кредитов, уровень безработицы и общее состояние экономики не всегда могут иметь непосредственное отношение к конкретному бизнесу, но они формируют климат, в котором работают все предприятия.
Социальные и культурные факторы варьируются от высоко поддающихся количественной оценке элементов, таких как демография, к менее легко измеряемым точкам, таким как экологическое сознание или влияние религиозных убеждений. Воспитательные достижения, отношение поколений, здоровье сообщества и социальная мобильность - все это социокультурные аспекты деловой среды. Хотя они могут быть наиболее очевидными при рассмотрении международных проектов, эти соображения могут кардинально измениться между регионами, городами и даже районами.
Технологические инновации и изменения затрагивают практически все отрасли. Тщательный анализ PEST исследует не только текущий уровень соответствующих технологий, но также фокус исследований, недавние прототипы и предстоящее устаревание. Подход к автоматизации, распространению инноваций и изменениям инфраструктуры вверх и вниз по цепочке производства - все это заслуживает внимания в этой категории.
ВРЕДИТЕЛЬ

Пример

Анализ PEST может быть расширен с помощью более гранулярных категорий, таких как Legal (SPELLED), Экологический (PESTLE), Этический (STEEPLE), Демографический (STEEPLED) или Межкультурный (SPELIT). Обычно они будут включены в одну из четырех категорий PEST, но для предприятий, где эти специфические факторы окажут особенно сильное воздействие, может оказаться полезным разделить их.

Как выполнить анализ PEST

Для начала анализа PEST, мозгового штурма на некоторое время, а затем выберите три или четыре фактора из каждой категории, которые, скорее всего, диск или изменить свой бизнес. Когда вы выделили эти основные проблемы, проиллюстрируйте наиболее важные. Для каждой категории вы можете использовать карту пауков, чтобы организовать мозговой штурм, или представить дополнительные детали в своем анализе.

Не пытайтесь быть исчерпывающим в перечислении факторов по каждой категории, всегда есть другой элемент, который можно добавить. Вместо этого помните, что анализ PEST является инструментом для понимания того, как более широкая среда влияет на ваши планы. Когда вы закончите, подумайте о включении факторов, которые вы определили как угрозы или возможности в SWOT-анализе.

Когда использовать PEST

PEST является ценным компонентом сканирования окружающей среды, поэтому нет времени для этого. Любой новый бизнес должен обследовать местность перед тем, как переходить на новое предприятие. Даже стабильные и успешные предприятия могут извлечь выгоду из наблюдения за тенденциями в бизнес-среде. Короче говоря, каждый, кто проводит SWOT- анализ, может включить анализ PEST в этот процесс. Независимо от того, являетесь ли вы предпринимателем или частью корпоративной команды, анализ PEST лучше подготовит вас к угрозам и возможностям, с которыми вы столкнетесь сейчас и в будущем.

Повествование Пест

Пример

www.storyboardthat.com

Swot Analysis

As a more general guide, here is a free SWOT analysis template worksheet (doc file), and the same free SWOT analysis tool (pdf format).

If you have difficulty opening the above doc file here are two other formats:

A SWOT analysis measures a business unit, a proposition or idea; a PEST analysis measures a market.

A SWOT analysis is a subjective assessment of data which is organized by the SWOT format into a logical order that helps understanding, presentation, discussion and decision-making. The four dimensions are a useful extension of a basic two heading list of pro's and con's (free pro's and con's template here).

SWOT analysis can be used for all sorts of decision-making, and the SWOT template enables proactive thinking, rather than relying on habitual or instinctive reactions.

The SWOT analysis template is normally presented as a grid, comprising four sections, one for each of the SWOT headings: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. The free SWOT template below includes sample questions, whose answers are inserted into the relevant section of the SWOT grid. The questions are examples, or discussion points, and obviously can be altered depending on the subject of the SWOT analysis. Note that many of the SWOT questions are also talking points for other headings - use them as you find most helpful, and make up your own to suit the issue being analysed. It is important to clearly identify the subject of a SWOT analysis, because a SWOT analysis is a perspective of one thing, be it a company, a product, a proposition, and idea, a method, or option, etc.

SWOT analysis is commonly presented and developed into a 2x2 matrix, which is shown and explained within the SWOT analysis matrix section.

 

swot analysis matrix - in business/marketing - internal v external factors

Modern SWOT analysis in business and marketing situations is normally structured so that a 2x2 matrix grid can be produced, according to two pairs of dimensions.

Strengths and Weaknesses, are 'mapped' or 'graphed' against Opportunities and Threats.

To enable this to happen cleanly and clearly, and from a logical point of view anyway when completing a SWOT analysis in most business and marketing situations, Strengths and Weaknesses are regarded distinctly as internal factors, whereas Opportunities and Threats are regarded distinctly as external factors.

Here is the explanation in more detail:

Strengths and Weaknesses

the internalenvironment - the situation inside the company or organizationfor example, factors relating to products, pricing, costs, profitability, performance, quality, people, skills, adaptability, brands, services, reputation, processes, infrastructure, etc.factors tend to be in the present 
Opportunities and Threatsthe externalenvironment - the situation outside the company or organizationfor example, factors relating to markets, sectors, audience, fashion, seasonality, trends, competition, economics, politics, society, culture, technology, environmental, media, law, etc.factors tend to be in the future
swot matrix (2x2 matrix using internal/external categories)

Here is a typical extension of the basic SWOT analysis grid into a useful 'action-based' 2x2 SWOT matrix.

The SWOT analysis in this format acts as a quick decision-making tool, quite aside from the more detailed data that would typically be fed into business planning process for each of the SWOT factors.

Here the 2x2 matrix model automatically suggests actions for issues arising from the SWOT analysis, according to four different categories:

 strengths (internal)weaknesses (internal)
opportunities (external)

strengths/opportunities 

obvious natural priorities

Likely to produce greatest ROI (Return On Investment)

Likely to be quickest and easiest to implement.

Probably justifying immediate action-planning or feasibility study.

Executive question: "If we are not already looking at these areas and prioritising them, then why not?"

weaknesses/opportunities 

potentially attractive options

Likely to produce good returns if capability and implementation are viable.

Potentially more exciting and stimulating and rewarding than S/O due to change, challenge, surprise tactics, and benefits from addressing and achieving improvements.

Executive questions: "What's actually stopping us doing these things, provided they truly fit strategically and are realistic and substantial?"

threats (external)strengths/threats 

easy to defend and counter

Only basic awareness, planning, and implementation required to meet these challenges.

Investment in these issues is generally safe and necessary.

Executive question: "Are we properly informed and organized to deal with these issues, and are we certain there are no hidden surprises?" - and - "Since we are strong here, can any of these threats be turned into opportunities?"

weaknesses/threats 

potentially high risk

Assessment of risk crucial.

Where risk is low then we must ignore these issues and not be distracted by them.

Where risk is high we must assess capability gaps and plan to defend/avert in very specific controlled ways.

Executive question: "Have we accurately assessed the risks of these issues, and where the risks are high do we have specific controlled reliable plans to avoid/avert/defend?"

N.B. SWOT analysis is a very flexible tool. Its use is not restricted to business and marketing. Be mindful that when SWOT is used in situations outside of business and marketing, strict categorization of the SWOT dimensions (according to 'internal' and 'external' factors) can be limiting, and so a more open interpretation of the model can be helpful in such circumstances, especially when assessing Opportunities and Threats.

Also be mindful that if using the SWOT analysis model only as a 2x2 matrix, which assumes the categorization of internal and external factors (and notably limiting the assessment of threats and opportunities to external factors only), that it is very easy then to miss certain threats and opportunities that can exist (internally) within the company/organization. Some internal threats and opportunities can be substantial, for example, opportunities such as: energy-saving, process-improvement, training, advertising, or discontinuing loss-making products, or threats such as: desertion or key staff, the loss of major contracts, to name just a couple of typically ever-present threats within large commercial corporations.

Be mindful therefore that the 'simplified' SWOT 2x2 matrix 'internal/external' method is not a reliable tool alone for identifying all threats and opportunities within organizations, or indeed any other situation.

You will note from the origins of SWOT analysis below that the methodology did not begin, and was not operated as the simple 2x2 'internal/external' matrix that we commonly see today. Particularly, the original application of the model did not restrict threats and opportunities to just external factors. Instead, six key aspects of the business in question (namely: product, process, customer, distribution, finance, admin) were each assessed using the SWOT model. Each aspect was considered according to all four SWOT elements. Thus today when we apply the SWOT model to an entire business, if we disregard internal threats and opportunities, so the analysis can exclude some potentially serious issues.

swot analysis - different applications

SWOT analysis is a powerful model for many different situations. The SWOT tool is not just for business and marketing. Here are some examples of what a SWOT analysis can be used to assess:

  • a company (its position in the market, commercial viability, etc)
  • a method of sales distribution
  • a product or brand
  • a business idea
  • a strategic option, such as entering a new market or launching a new product
  • a opportunity to make an acquisition
  • a potential partnership
  • changing a supplier
  • outsourcing a service, activity or resource
  • project planning and project management
  • an investment opportunity
  • personal financial planning
  • personal career development - direction, choice, change, etc.
  • education and qualifications planning and decision-making
  • life-change - downshifting, relocation,
  • relationships, perhaps even family planning?..

Whatever the application, be sure to describe the subject (or purpose or question) for the SWOT analysis clearly so you remain focused on the central issue. This is especially crucial when others are involved in the process. People contributing to the analysis and seeing the finished SWOT analysis must be able to understand properly the purpose of the SWOT assessment and the implications arising.

SWOT analysis template

Here is a larger illustration of SWOT analysis.

Note that this format is not presented or proposed as a 2x2 'internal/external' matrix; it's a more open demonstration of the sorts of issues and questions which can be addressed when using the SWOT format as part of business planning and decision-making.

Subject of SWOT analysis: (define the subject of the analysis here)

strengths

  • Advantages of proposition?
  • Capabilities?
  • Competitive advantages?
  • USP's (unique selling points)?
  • Resources, Assets, People?
  • Experience, knowledge, data?
  • Financial reserves, likely returns?
  • Marketing - reach, distribution, awareness?
  • Innovative aspects?
  • Location and geographical?
  • Price, value, quality?
  • Accreditations, qualifications, certifications?
  • Processes, systems, IT, communications?
  • Cultural, attitudinal, behavioural?
  • Management cover, succession?

weaknesses

  • Disadvantages of proposition?
  • Gaps in capabilities?
  • Lack of competitive strength?
  • Reputation, presence and reach?
  • Financials?
  • Own known vulnerabilities?
  • Timescales, deadlines and pressures?
  • Cashflow, start-up cash-drain?
  • Continuity, supply chain robustness?
  • Effects on core activities, distraction?
  • Reliability of data, plan predictability?
  • Morale, commitment, leadership?
  • Accreditations, etc?
  • Processes and systems, etc?
  • Management cover, succession?

opportunities

  • Market developments?
  • Competitors' vulnerabilities?
  • Industry or lifestyle trends?
  • Technology development and innovation?
  • Global influences?
  • New markets, vertical, horizontal?
  • Niche target markets?
  • Geographical, export, import?
  • Market need for new USP's?
  • Market response to tactics, e.g., surprise?
  • Major contracts, tenders?
  • Business and product development?
  • Information and research?
  • Partnerships, agencies, distribution?
  • Market volume demand trends?
  • Seasonal, weather, fashion influences?

threats

  • Political effects?
  • Legislative effects?
  • Environmental effects?
  • IT developments?
  • Competitor intentions - various?
  • Market demand?
  • New technologies, services, ideas?
  • Vital contracts and partners?
  • Obstacles faced?
  • Insurmountable weaknesses?
  • Employment market?
  • Financial and credit pressures?
  • Economy - home, abroad?
  • Seasonality, weather effects?

 

free SWOT analysis template worksheet version (doc file)
swot analysis example

This SWOT analysis example is based on an imaginary situation. The scenario is based on a business-to-business manufacturing company, who historically rely on distributors to take their products to the end user market. The opportunity, and therefore the subject for the SWOT analysis, is for the manufacturer to create a new company of its own to distribute its products direct to certain end-user sectors, which are not being covered or developed by its normal distributors.

Subject of SWOT analysis example: the creation of own distributor company to access new end-user sectors not currently being developed.
strengths
  • End-user sales control and direction.
  • Right products, quality and reliability.
  • Superior product performance vs competitors.
  • Better product life and durability.
  • Spare manufacturing capacity.
  • Some staff have experience of end-user sector.
  • Have customer lists.
  • Direct delivery capability.
  • Product innovations ongoing.
  • Can serve from existing sites.
  • Products have required accreditations.
  • Processes and IT should cope.
  • Management is committed and confident.
weaknesses
  • Customer lists not tested.
  • Some gaps in range for certain sectors.
  • We would be a small player.
  • No direct marketing experience.
  • We cannot supply end-users abroad.
  • Need more sales people.
  • Limited budget.
  • No pilot or trial done yet.
  • Don't have a detailed plan yet.
  • Delivery-staff need training.
  • Customer service staff need training.
  • Processes and systems, etc
  • Management cover insufficient.
opportunities
  • Could develop new products.
  • Local competitors have poor products.
  • Profit margins will be good.
  • End-users respond to new ideas.
  • Could extend to overseas.
  • New specialist applications.
  • Can surprise competitors.
  • Support core business economies.
  • Could seek better supplier deals.
threats
  • Legislation could impact.
  • Environmental effects would favour larger competitors.
  • Existing core business distribution risk.
  • Market demand very seasonal.
  • Retention of key staff critical.
  • Could distract from core business.
  • Possible negative publicity.
  • Vulnerable to reactive attack by major competitors.

See also the free PEST analysis template and method, which measures a business according to external factors; Political, Economic, Social and Technological. It is often helpful to complete a PEST analysis prior to competing a SWOT analysis.

See also Porter's Five Forces model.

more on the difference and relationship between PEST and SWOT

There is some overlap between PEST and SWOT. Similar factors appear in each. That said, PEST and SWOT are certainly two different perspectives:

PEST tends to assess a market, including competitors, from the standpoint of a particular proposition or a business.

SWOT in business and marketing tends to be an assessment of a business or a proposition, whether it is your own business or (less commonly) a competitor's business or proposition.

Strategic planning is not a precise science - no tool is mandatory - it's a matter of pragmatic choice as to what helps best to identify and explain the issues.

PEST analysis may useful before SWOT analysis where it helps to identify SWOT factors. Alternatively PEST analysis may be incorporated within a SWOT analysis, to achieve the same effect.

PEST becomes more useful and relevant the larger and more complex the business or proposition, but even for a very small local businesses a PEST analysis can still throw up one or two very significant issues that might otherwise be missed.

The four quadrants in PEST vary in significance depending on the type of business, for example, social factors are more obviously relevant to consumer businesses or a B2B (business-to-business) organization close to the consumer-end of the supply chain, whereas political factors are more obviously relevant to a global munitions supplier or aerosol propellant manufacturer.

All businesses benefit from a SWOT analysis, and all businesses benefit from completing a SWOT analysis of their main competitors, which interestingly can then provide useful points back into the economic aspects of the PEST analysis.

 

swot analysis history -the origins of the SWOT analysis model

This remarkable piece of history as to the origins of SWOT analysis was provided by Albert S Humphrey, one of the founding fathers of what we know today as SWOT analysis. I am indebted to him for sharing this fascinating contribution. Albert Humphrey died on 31 October 2005. He was one of the good guys.

SWOT analysis came from the research conducted at Stanford Research Institute from 1960-1970. The background to SWOT stemmed from the need to find out why corporate planning failed. The research was funded by the fortune 500 companies to find out what could be done about this failure. The Research Team were Marion Dosher, Dr Otis Benepe, Albert Humphrey, Robert Stewart, Birger Lie.

It all began with the corporate planning trend, which seemed to appear first at Du Pont in 1949. By 1960 every Fortune 500 company had a 'corporate planning manager' (or equivalent) and 'associations of long range corporate planners' had sprung up in both the USA and the UK.

However a unanimous opinion developed in all of these companies that corporate planning in the shape of long range planning was not working, did not pay off, and was an expensive investment in futility.

It was widely held that managing change and setting realistic objectives which carry the conviction of those responsible was difficult and often resulted in questionable compromises.

The fact remained, despite the corporate and long range planners, that the one and only missing link was how to get the management team agreed and committed to a comprehensive set of action programmes.

To create this link, starting in 1960, Robert F Stewart at SRI in Menlo Park California lead a research team to discover what was going wrong with corporate planning, and then to find some sort of solution, or to create a system for enabling management teams agreed and committed to development work, which today we call 'managing change'.

The research carried on from 1960 through 1969. 1100 companies and organizations were interviewed and a 250-item questionnaire was designed and completed by over 5,000 executives. Seven key findings lead to the conclusion that in corporations chief executive should be the chief planner and that his immediate functional directors should be the planning team. Dr Otis Benepe defined the 'Chain of Logic' which became the core of system designed to fix the link for obtaining agreement and commitment.

  1. Values
  2. Appraise
  3. Motivation
  4. Search
  5. Select
  6. Programme
  7. Act
  8. Monitor and repeat steps 1 2 and 3

We discovered that we could not change the values of the team nor set the objectives for the team so we started as the first step by asking the appraisal question, for example, what's good and bad about the operation. We began the system by asking what is good and bad about the present and the future. What is good in the present is Satisfactory, good in the future is an Opportunity; bad in the present is a Fault and bad in the future is a Threat. This was called the SOFT analysis.

When this was presented to Urick and Orr* in 1964 at the Seminar in Long Range Planning at the Dolder Grand in Zurich Switzerland they changed the F to a W and called it SWOT Analysis.

SWOT was then promoted in Britain by Urick and Orr as an exercise in and of itself. As such it has no benefit. What was necessary was the sorting of the issues into the programme planning categories of:

  1. Product (what are we selling?)
  2. Process (how are we selling it?)
  3. Customer (to whom are we selling it?)
  4. Distribution (how does it reach them?)
  5. Finance (what are the prices, costs and investments?)
  6. Administration (and how do we manage all this?)

[*N.B. Albert Humphrey's reference to 'Urick and Orr' is uncertain. Does this instead really refer to the notable British management theorists/and for a time consultancy partners Lyndall Urwick and John Leslie Orr? I don't know. If you do please tell me.]

The second step then becomes 'what shall the team do' about the issues in each of these categories. The planning process was then designed through trial and error and resulted finally in a 17 step process beginning with SOFT/SWOT with each issue recorded separately on a single page called a planning issue.

The first prototype was tested and published in 1966 based on the work done at 'Erie Technological Corp' in Erie Pa. In 1970 the prototype was brought to the UK, under the sponsorship of W H Smith & Sons plc, and completed by 1973. The operational programme was used to merge the CWS milling and baking operations with those of J W French Ltd.

The process has been used successfully ever since. By 2004, now, this system has been fully developed, and proven to cope with today's problems of setting and agreeing realistic annual objectives without depending on outside consultants or expensive staff resources.

 

the seven key research findings

The key findings were never published because it was felt they were too controversial. This is what was found:

1) A business was divided into two parts. The base business plus the development business. This was re-discovered by Dr Peter Senge at MIT in 1998 and published in his book the Fifth Discipline (not '5th Dimension' as previously stated here - thanks J Hoffman for this correction, 28 Jan 2011). The amount of development business which become operational is equal to or greater than that business on the books within a period of 5 to 7 years. This was a major surprise and urged the need for discovering a better method for planning and managing change.

2) Dr Hal Eyring published his findings on 'Distributive Justice' and pointed out that all people measure what they get from their work and divide it by what they give to the work and this ratio is compared to others. If it is not equal then the person first re-perceives and secondly slows down if added demands are not met. (See for interest Adams Equity Theory and the Equity Theory Diagram pdf)

3) The introduction of a corporate planner upset the sense of fair play at senior level, making the job of the corporate planner impossible.

4) The gap between what could be done by the organisation and what was actually done was about 35%.

5) The senior man will over-supervise the area he comes from. Finance- Finance, Engineering-Engineering etc.

6) There are 3 factors which separate excellence from mediocrity:

a. Overt attention to purchasing

b. Short-term written down departmental plans for improvement

c. Continued education of the Senior Executive

7) Some form of formal documentation is required to obtain approval for development work. In short we could not solve the problem by stopping planning.

in conclusion

By sorting the SWOT issues into the 6 planning categories one can obtain a system which presents a practical way of assimilating the internal and external information about the business unit, delineating short and long term priorities, and allowing an easy way to build the management team which can achieve the objectives of profit growth.

This approach captures the collective agreement and commitment of those who will ultimately have to do the work of meeting or exceeding the objectives finally set. It permits the team leader to define and develop co-ordinated, goal-directed actions, which underpin the overall agreed objectives between levels of the business hierarchy.

Albert S Humphrey August 2004

translating SWOT issues into actions under the six categories

Albert Humphrey advocated that the six categories:

  1. Product (what are we selling?)
  2. Process (how are we selling it?)
  3. Customer (to whom are we selling it?)
  4. Distribution (how does it reach them?)
  5. Finance (what are the prices, costs and investments?)
  6. Administration (and how do we manage all this?)

provide a framework by which SWOT issues can be developed into actions and managed using teams.

This can be something of a 'leap', and so the stage warrants further explanation. Translating the SWOT issues into actions, are best sorted into (or if necessary broken down into) the six categories, because in the context of the way that business and organizations work, this makes them more quantifiable and measurable, responsible teams more accountable, and therefore the activities more manageable. The other pivotal part in the process is of course achieving the commitment from the team(s) involved, which is partly explained in the item summarising Humphrey's TAM® model and process.

As far as identifying actions from SWOT issues is concerned, it all very much depends on your reasons and aims for using SWOT, and also your authority/ability to manage others, whom by implication of SWOT's breadth and depth, are likely to be involved in the agreement and delivery of actions.

Depending on pretext and situation, a SWOT analysis can produce issues which very readily translate into (one of the six) category actions, or a SWOT analysis can produce issues which overlay a number of categories. Or a mixture. Whatever, SWOT essentially tells you what is good and bad about a business or a particular proposition. If it's a business, and the aim is to improve it, then work on translating:

strengths (maintain, build and leverage), opportunities (prioritise and optimise), weaknesses (remedy or exit), threats (counter)

into actions (each within one of the six categories) that can be agreed and owned by a team or number of teams.

If the SWOT analysis is being used to assess a proposition, then it could be that the analysis shows that the proposition is too weak (especially if compared with other SWOT's for alternative propositions) to warrant further investment, in which case further action planning, other than exit, is not required.

If the proposition is clearly strong (presumably you will have indicated this using other methods as well), then proceed as for a business, and translate issues into category actions with suitable ownership by team(s).

This is my understanding of Albert Humphrey's theory relating to developing SWOT issues into organizational change actions and accountabilities. (I'm pleased to say that Albert kindly confirmed that this is indeed correct.)

There are other ways of applying SWOT of course, depending on your circumstances and aims, for instance if concentrating on a department rather than a whole business, then it could make sense to revise the six categories to reflect the functional parts of the department, or whatever will enable the issues to be translatable into manageable, accountable and owned aims.

 

Here is a summary of Albert Humphrey's impressive TAM® (Team Action Management) model, developed and used to speed up the process of initiating and controlling organizational change.

www.businessballs.com

анализ by Ольга Ткаченко on Prezi

PEST - анализPEST-анализ (STEP) — это маркетинговый инструмент, предназначенный для выявления политических, экономических, социальных и технологических аспектов внешней среды, которые влияют на бизнес компании; — PEST (STEP) анализ - это стратегический анализ социальных (S – social), технологических (Т – technological), экономических (Е – economic), политических (Р – political) факторов внешней среды организации. Особенности анализаИнтерпретация Принимающие решения специалисты организации часто сталкиваются с большими трудностями в определении сущности макросреды, а также границ ее поля деятельности. Факторами, отображающими проблемы интерпретации, служат структурирование значимых исследований, проявление финансового воздействия, синтезирование кратко- и долгосрочных результатов, недостаток вовлечения в анализ руководства высшего звена, сложности при осуществлении потенциальных возможностей в планах действия и время, и ресурсы, требуемые для проведения точного анализа.PEST-анализ - полезный инструмент для понимания рынка, позиции компании на рынке, ее потенциала и направления бизнеса.На практике PEST-анализ удобно применять при разработке плана маркетинга в качестве инструмента макроэкономического анализа окружающей среды компании и доступных ресурсов.Он применяется в процессе стратегического планирования и управления крупными компаниями, а также для целей оценки инвестиционных рисков.Анализ выполняется по схеме «фактор — предприятие». Результаты анализа оформляются в виде матрицы, подлежащим которой являются факторы макросреды, сказуемым — сила их влияния, оцениваемая в баллах, рангах и других единицах измерения. Результаты PEST-анализа позволяют оценить внешнюю экономическую ситуацию, складывающуюся в сфере производства и коммерческой деятельности.Разновидности PEST-анализаPESTLE-анализ является расширенной двумя факторами (Legal и Environmental) версией PEST-анализа. Иногда применяются и другие форматы, например, SLEPT-анализ (плюс Правовой фактор) или STEEPLE-анализ: Социально-демографический, технологический, экономический, окружающая среда (природный), политический, правовой и этнические факторы. Также может учитываться и географический фактор.Краткосрочная ориентация организаций Многие компании сокращают финансирование анализа макросреды в экономически трудные периоды, так как он становится в трудные времена слишком дорогим для них. Наоборот, в такой период деятельности организации анализ более всего необходим, так как он может помочь решить данные проблемы. Поэтому преимущества могут достичь те организации, которые могут проводить и поддерживать проведение анализа внешней среды и в хорошие, и в плохие времена.Отсутствие одобрения и непонимания Отсутствие одобрения проведения анализа внешней среды возникает в силу отсутствия понимания высшим руководством его ценности; сложности стимулировать линейных менеджеров к участию в анализе и использованию его результатов; сопротивления к изменению методов прогнозирования.

Организации, осуществляющие свою деятельность в разрезе нескольких государств или компаний, создают огромную сложность для аналитиков внешней среды. Для анализа макросреды данных организаций экспертам необходимо обобщать значения для динамики многочисленных макросред различных государств и организаций.Диверсифицированные организацииДиверсифика́циярасширение ассортимента выпускаемой продукции и переориентация рынков сбыта, освоение новых видов производств с целью повышения эффективности производства, получения экономической выгоды, предотвращения банкротства. Учитывая то, что PEST-анализ касается внешних факторов, которые оказывают воздействие на деятельность предприятия, внешнюю среду принято разделять следующим образом: - Макросреду(правительство, экономика, социально-демографическая среда, научно-технический прогресс, природные факторы).- Микросреду(поставщики, покупатели, акционеры, конкуренты, кредиторы, профсоюзы). Примеры политических факторов:Выборы всех уровнейИзменение законодательстваВступление государства в различные надгосударственные структурыГосударственное регулирование в отраслиГосударственное регулирование конкуренцииПримеры экономических факторов:Динамика ВВПИнфляцияДинамика курса рубляДинамика ставки рефинансирования центробанкаДинамика занятостиПлатёжеспособный спросРынок и торговые циклыЗатраты на энергетику предприятияЗатраты на сырье предприятияЗатраты на коммуникацииПовышение цен поставщиковСнижение покупательной способности потребителейПримеры социальных факторов:Изменения в базовых ценностяхИзменения в стиле и уровне жизниОтношение к труду и отдыхуДемографические измененияРелигиозные факторыВлияние СМИПримеры технологических факторов:Тенденции НИОКРНовые патентыНовые продуктыРазвитие технологийОсновные вопросы при изучении факторов: -политические (Р): какие возможности и угрозы для бизнеса создает динамика политической ситуации; каковы главные тенденции, которые могут повлиять на деятельность компании? - состояние экономики (Е): каковы наиболее существенные ожидаемые события в экономике и как влияет экономическая ситуация на перспективы бизнеса? - социально-культурные особенности (S): в чем особенности социального, демографического, культурного свойства, которые должны учитываться в работе?- научно-техническая среда (Т): в какой степени бизнес зависит от нововведений и изменений; насколько динамичны темпы научно-технического прогресса в отрасли; какова доля функции НИОКР в деятельности предприятия? Содержание PEST-анализа

PEST-анализ можно проводить как на качественном, так и на количественном

уровне.Общая схема:1. Разрабатывается перечень факторов макроокружения, имеющих высокую вероятность реализации и воздействия. 2. Оценивается значимость каждого события для данного предприятия путем присвоения ему определенного веса. 3. Дается оценка степени влияния (как положительного, так и негативного) каждого фактора на стратегию предприятия. 4. Определяются взвешенные оценки путем умножения веса фактора на силу его воздействия, и подсчитывается суммарная взвешенная оценка для данной компании.

Суммарная оценкауказывает на степень готовности компании реагировать на текущие и прогнозируемые факторы макроокружения.

При количественном вариантеоценки следует учитывать, что: - весовой коэффициент должен отражать степень вероятности наступления события; - количественная оценка влияния фактора должна принимать как отрицательное, так и положительное значение; - итоговая оценка дает информацию о том, в какой степени компания зависит от макросреды, однако помимо получения суммарной оценки необходимо проанализировать вклад каждого фактора в получении результирующего значения, а также оценить взаимодействие факторов.Вывод

prezi.com

SWOT analysis - Wikipedia

For other uses, see SWOT. A SWOT analysis, with its four elements in a 2×2 matrix.

SWOT analysis (or SWOT matrix) is a strategic planning technique used to help a person or organization identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats related to business competition or project planning.[1] It is intended to specify the objectives of the business venture or project and identify the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving those objectives. Users of a SWOT analysis often ask and answer questions to generate meaningful information for each category to make the tool useful and identify their competitive advantage.

Strengths and Weakness are frequently internally-related, while Opportunities and Threats commonly focus on environmental placement.

  • Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others
  • Weaknesses: characteristics of the business that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others
  • Opportunities: elements in the environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage
  • Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project

The degree to which the internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit. Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective. First, decision-makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is not attainable, they must select a different objective and repeat the process.

Some authors credit SWOT to Albert Humphrey, who led a convention at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) in the 1960s and 1970s using data from Fortune 500 companies.[2][3] However, Humphrey himself did not claim the creation of SWOT, and the origins remain obscure.

Internal and external factors[edit]

"So it is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you can win a hundred battles without a single loss. If you only know yourself, but not your opponent, you may win or may lose. If you know neither yourself nor your enemy, you will always endanger yourself."

The Art of War by Sun Tzu"

SWOT analysis aims to identify the key internal and external factors seen as important to achieving an objective. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories:

  1. Internal factors – the strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization
  2. External factors – the opportunities and threats presented by the environment external to the organization

Analysis may view the internal factors as strengths or as weaknesses depending upon their effect on the organization's objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses (distractions, competition) for another objective. The factors may include all of the 4Ps as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on.

The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation, and sociocultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or in competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix.

SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For example, it may tend to persuade its users to compile lists rather than to think about actual important factors in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists uncritically and without clear prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may appear to balance strong threats.

It is prudent not to eliminate any candidate SWOT entry too quickly. The importance of individual SWOTs will be revealed by the value of the strategies they generate. A SWOT item that produces valuable strategies is important. A SWOT item that generates no strategies is not important.

The usefulness of SWOT analysis is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. SWOT analysis may be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state (objective) is defined. Examples include non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey.

Strategy building[edit]

SWOT analysis can be used effectively to build organizational or personal strategy. Steps necessary to execute strategy-oriented analysis involve identification of internal and external factors (using the popular 2x2 matrix), selection and evaluation of the most important factors, and identification of relations existing between internal and external features.[4]

For instance, strong relations between strengths and opportunities can suggest good conditions in the company and allow using an aggressive strategy. On the other hand, strong interactions between weaknesses and threats could be analyzed as a potential warning and advice for using a defensive strategy.[5]

Matching and converting[edit]

One way of using SWOT is matching and converting. Matching is used to find competitive advantage by matching the strengths to opportunities. Another tactic is to convert weaknesses or threats into strengths or opportunities. An example of a conversion strategy is to find new markets. If the threats or weaknesses cannot be converted, a company should try to minimize or avoid them.[6]

Corporate planning[edit]

As part of the development of strategies and plans to enable the organization to achieve its objectives, that organization will use a systematic/rigorous process known as corporate planning. SWOT alongside PEST/PESTLE can be used as a basis for the analysis of business and environmental factors.[7]

  • Set objectives – defining what the organization is going to do
  • Environmental scanning
    • Internal appraisals of the organization's SWOT, this needs to include an assessment of the present situation as well as a portfolio of products/services and an analysis of the product/service life cycle
  • Analysis of existing strategies, this should determine relevance from the results of an internal/external appraisal. This may include gap analysis of environmental factors
  • Strategic Issues defined – key factors in the development of a corporate plan that the organization must address
  • Develop new/revised strategies – revised analysis of strategic issues may mean the objectives need to change
  • Establish critical success factors – the achievement of objectives and strategy implementation
  • Preparation of operational, resource, projects plans for strategy implementation
  • Monitoring results – mapping against plans, taking corrective action, which may mean amending objectives/strategies[8]

Marketing[edit]

In many competitor analyses, marketers build detailed profiles of each competitor in the market, focusing especially on their relative competitive strengths and weaknesses using SWOT analysis. Marketing managers will examine each competitor's cost structure, sources of profits, resources and competencies, competitive positioning and product differentiation, degree of vertical integration, historical responses to industry developments, and other factors.

Marketing management often finds it necessary to invest in research to collect the data required to perform accurate marketing analysis. Accordingly, management often conducts market research (alternately marketing research) to obtain this information. Marketers employ a variety of techniques to conduct market research, but some of the more common include:

  • Qualitative marketing research such as focus groups
  • Quantitative marketing research such as statistical surveys
  • Experimental techniques such as test markets
  • Observational techniques such as ethnographic (on-site) observation
  • Marketing managers may also design and oversee various environmental scanning and competitive intelligence processes to help identify trends and inform the company's marketing analysis.

Below is an example SWOT analysis of a market position of a small management consultancy with specialism in HRM.[8]

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
Reputation in marketplace Shortage of consultants at operating level rather than partner level Well established position with a well-defined market niche Large consultancies operating at a minor level
Expertise at partner level in HRM consultancy Unable to deal with multidisciplinary assignments because of size or lack of ability Identified market for consultancy in areas other than HRM Other small consultancies looking to invade the marketplace

The SWOT analysis has been used in community work as a tool to identify positive and negative factors within organizations, communities, and the broader society that promote or inhibit successful implementation of social services and social change efforts. It is used as a preliminary resource, assessing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a community served by a nonprofit or community organization.[10] This organizing tool is best used in collaboration with community workers and/or community members before developing goals and objectives for a program design or implementing an organizing strategy. The SWOT analysis is a part of the planning for social change process and will not provide a strategic plan if used by itself. After a SWOT analysis is completed, a social change organization can turn the SWOT list into a series of recommendations to consider before developing a strategic plan.

one example of a SWOT Analysis used in community organizing A simple SWOT Analysis used in Community Organizing

Strengths and weaknesses:These are the internal factors within an organization.

  • Human resources – staff, volunteers, board members, target population
  • Physical resources – your location, building, equipment
  • Financial – grants, funding agencies, other sources of income
  • Activities and processes – programs you run, systems you employ
  • Past experiences – building blocks for learning and success, your reputation in the community

Opportunities and threats:These are external factors stemming from community or societal forces.

  • Future trends in your field or the culture
  • The economy – local, national, or international
  • Funding sources – foundations, donors, legislatures
  • Demographics – changes in the age, race, gender, culture of those you serve or in your area
  • The physical environment (Is your building in a growing part of town? Is the bus company cutting routes?)
  • Legislation (Do new federal requirements make your job harder...or easier?)
  • Local, national, or international events

Although the SWOT analysis was originally designed as an organizational method for business and industries, it has been replicated in various community work as a tool for identifying external and internal support to combat internal and external opposition. The SWOT analysis is necessary to provide direction to the next stages of the change process.[12] It has been used by community organizers and community members to further social justice in the context of Social Work practice.

[edit]

As mentioned above, SWOT can be crucial to determining the success of a project, while factoring in funding, as well as accessibility and logic. Often, a city will spend a year weighing the Risk-benefits[13][14] of a project before they even vote on it.

Elements to consider[edit]

Elements to consider in a SWOT analysis include understanding the community that a particular organization is working with. This can be done via public forums, listening campaigns, and informational interviews. Data collection will help inform the community members and workers when developing the SWOT analysis. A needs and assets assessment are tooling that can be used to identify the needs and existing resources of the community. When these assessments are done and data has been collected, an analysis of the community can be made that informs the SWOT analysis.

Steps for implementation[edit]

A SWOT analysis is best developed in a group setting such as a work or community meeting. A facilitator can conduct the meeting by first explaining what a SWOT analysis is as well as identifying the meaning of each term.

One way of facilitating the development of a SWOT analysis includes developing an example SWOT with the larger group then separating each group into smaller teams to present to the larger group after set amount of time. This allows for individuals, who may be silenced in a larger group setting, to contribute. Once the allotted time is up, the facilitator may record all the factors of each group onto a large document such as a poster board, and then the large group, as a collective, can go work through each of the threats and weaknesses to explore options that may be used to combat negative forces with the strengths and opportunities present within the organization and community. A SWOT meeting allows participants to creatively brainstorm, identify obstacles, and possibly strategize solutions/way forward to these limitations.

When to use SWOT analysis[edit]

The uses of a SWOT analysis by a community organization are as follows: to organize information, provide insight into barriers[15] that may be present while engaging in social change processes, and identify strengths available that can be activated to counteract these barriers.

A SWOT analysis can be used to:

  • Explore new solutions to problems
  • Identify barriers that will limit goals/objectives
  • Decide on direction that will be most effective
  • Reveal possibilities and limitations for change
  • To revise plans to best navigate systems, communities, and organizations
  • As a brainstorming and recording device as a means of communication[15]
  • To enhance "credibility of interpretation"to be used in presentation to leaders or key supporters.[10]

Benefits and advantages[edit]

The SWOT analysis in social work practice framework is beneficial because it helps organizations decide whether or not an objective is obtainable and therefore enables organizations to set achievable goals, objectives, and steps to further the social change or community development effort.[16] It enables organizers to take visions and produce practical and efficient outcomes that effect long-lasting change, and it helps organizations gather meaningful information to maximize their potential.[16] Completing a SWOT analysis is a useful process regarding the consideration of key organizational priorities, such as gender and cultural diversity and fundraising objectives.[17]

Limitations[edit]

Some findings from Menon et al. (1999)[18] and Hill and Westbrook (1997)[19] have suggested that SWOT may harm performance and that "no-one subsequently used the outputs within the later stages of the strategy".

Other critiques include the misuse of the SWOT analysis as a technique that can be quickly designed without critical thought leading to a misrepresentation of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats within an organization's internal and external surroundings.[20]

Another limitation includes the development of a SWOT analysis simply to defend previously decided goals and objectives. This misuse leads to limitations on brainstorming possibilities and "real" identification of barriers. This misuse also places the organization’s interest above the well-being of the community. Further, a SWOT analysis should be developed as a collaborative with a variety of contributions made by participants including community members. The design of a SWOT analysis by one or two community workers is limiting to the realities of the forces, specifically external factors, and devalues the possible contributions of community members.[15]

The SVOR alternative[edit]

In project management, the alternative to SWOT known by the acronym SVOR (Strengths, Vulnerabilities, Opportunities, and Risks) compares the project elements along two axes: internal and external, and positive and negative. It takes into account the mathematical link that exists between these various elements, considering also the role of infrastructures. The SVOR table provides an intricate understanding of the elements at play in a given project:[21]

Forces Internal Mathematical link External
Positive Total Forces Total Forces given constraints = Infrastructures / Opportunities Opportunities
Mathematical link Vulnerabilities given constraints = 1 / Total Forces constant k Opportunities given constraints = 1 / Risks
Negative Vulnerabilities Risks given constraints = k / Vulnerabilities Risks

Constraints consist of: calendar of tasks and activities, costs, and norms of quality. The "k" constant varies with each project (for example, it may be valued at 1.3).[citation needed][a]

SWOT analysis in popular culture[edit]

Television shows[edit]

In Season 2 Episode 6 of Silicon Valley, Jared Dunn (Zach Woods) introduces the Pied Piper team to SWOT analysis. Later in that episode Dinesh (Kumail Nanjiani) and Gilfoyle (Martin Starr) employ the method when deciding whether or not inform a stunt driver that the calculations for his upcoming jump were performed incorrectly.[22]

Ads[edit]

Many reports have gone out about the use of SWOT by real life companies, and how the idea is spreading. Coca-Cola has used this In their television ads[23] in order to effectively target a customer, such as appeal to senses.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SWOT Analysis: Discover New Opportunities, Manage and Eliminate Threats". www.mindtools.com. 1006. Retrieved 24 February 2018. 
  2. ^ Humphrey, Albert (December 2005). "SWOT Analysis for Management Consulting" (PDF). SRI Alumni Newsletter. SRI International. 
  3. ^ "Albert Humphrey The "Father" of TAM". TAM UK. Retrieved 2012-06-03. 
  4. ^ Blake, Martin; Wijetilaka, Shehan (26 February 2015). "5 tips to grow your start-up using SWOT analysis". Sydney. Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  5. ^ Osita, Christian; Onyebuchi, Idoko; Justina, Nzekwe (31 January 2014). "Organization's stability and productivity: the role of SWOT analysis" (PDF). 2 (9). International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research (2014): 23–32. Retrieved 17 March 2016. 
  6. ^ See for instance: Mehta, S. (2000) Marketing Strategy
  7. ^ Armstrong. M. A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th edition) 2006, Kogan Page, London ISBN 0-7494-4631-5
  8. ^ a b Armstrong.M Management Processes and Functions, 1996, London CIPD ISBN 0-85292-438-0
  9. ^ a b Westhues, Anne; Jean Lafrance; Glen Schmidt (2001). "A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada". Social Work Education: The International Journal. 20 (1): 35–56. 
  10. ^ Birkenmaier, Julie (2001). The Practice of Generalist Social Work. New York, NY: Routledge. 
  11. ^ Pittsburg, California tried this out recently with the BART program. Citation: (Document). Pittsburg City, California, www.ci.pittsburg.ca.us/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid.
  12. ^ "Urban Anylisis of Urmia, Iran" (PDF). Reviste. 
  13. ^ a b c Chermack, Thomas J.; Bernadette K. Kasshanna (December 2007). "The Use of and Misuse of SWOT analysis and implications for HRD professionals". Human Resource Development International. 10 (4): 383–399. 
  14. ^ a b Quincy, Ronald. "SWOT Analysis: Raising capacity of your organization". Rutgers School of Social Work. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  15. ^ "Campaigners Toolkit: Strategy". The Change Agency. Retrieved 28 September 2017. 
  16. ^ Menon, A.; et al. (1999). "Antecedents and Consequences of Marketing Strategy Making". Journal of Marketing. American Marketing Association. 63 (2): 18–40. doi:10.2307/1251943. JSTOR 1251943. 
  17. ^ Hill, T. & R. Westbrook (1997). "SWOT Analysis: It's Time for a Product Recall". Long Range Planning. 30 (1): 46–52. doi:10.1016/S0024-6301(96)00095-7. 
  18. ^ Koch, Adam (2000). "SWOT does not need to be recalled: It needs to be enhanced". Swineburne University of Technology. 
  19. ^ Mesly, Olivier (2017). Project feasibility – Tools for uncovering points of vulnerability. New York, NY:Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 546 pages, ISBN 9 781498 757911.
  20. ^ https://www.hbo.com/silicon-valley/season-02/6-homicide/synopsis
  21. ^ http://www.valueline.com/Stocks/Highlights/The_Coca-Cola_Company__A_Short_SWOT_Analysis.aspx#.Wo36ULeov4g

[edit]

External links[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

BFM Group Ukraine :: Андрей Стадник

PEST (STEP) анализ 

 

PEST (STEP) анализ - стратегический анализ социальных (S – social), технологических (Т – technological), экономических (Е – economic), политических (Р – political) факторов внешней среды организации. Поскольку на среду работы предприятия напрямую влияют политические факторы, то в результате анализа определяются факторы влияния политической ситуации на деловую активность, инвестиционный климат, стабильность и перспективы развития. 

Экономический фактор изучается как основной для определения инвестиционных перспектив и перспектив развития рынков, покупательной способности и т.д. Также изучается распределение экономических ресурсов в масштабе государства. 

Социальный фактор определяет динамику  потребительских предпочтений, распределение и структуру социальных групп населения, возрастную и гендерную структуру.  

Последним фактором является технологический компонент. Целью его исследования принято считать выявление тенденций в технологическом развитии, которые зачастую являются причинами изменений и потерь рынка, а также появления новых продуктов.

Анализ выполняется по схеме «фактор — предприятие». Результаты анализа оформляются в виде матрицы, подлежащим которой являются факторы макросреды, сказуемым — сила их влияния, оцениваемая в баллах, рангах и других единицах измерения. Результаты PEST-анализа позволяют оценить внешнюю экономическую ситуацию, складывающуюся в сфере производства и коммерческой деятельности.

Развитие идей PEST-анализа 

В результате того, что различные аналитики начали задаваться вопросами о том, почему только четыре фактора внешней среды должны подвергать детальному анализу, возникли идеи расширить границы анализа и перечень факторов. В результате появились новые абреввиатуры: 

PESTLE-анализ является расширенной двумя факторами (Legal и Environmental) версией PEST-анализа.

SLEPT-анализ (плюс Правовой фактор) 

STEEPLE-анализ: Социально-демографический, технологический, экономический, окружающая среда(природный), политический, правовой и этнические факторы. 

 

ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ ФАКТОРЫ ВЛИЯНИЕ ЭКОНОМИКИ
  • Текущее законодательство на рынке
  • Будущие изменения в законодательстве
  • Европейское/международное законодательство
  • Регулирующие органы и нормы
  • Правительственная политика, изменение
  • Государственное регулирование конкуренции
  • Торговая политика
  • Ужесточение госконтроля за деятельностью бизнес-субъектов
  • Выборы на всех уровнях власти
  • Финансирование, гранты и инициативы
  • Группы лоббирования/давления рынка
  • Международные группы давления
  • Экологические проблемы
  • Прочее влияние государства в отрасли
  • Экономическая ситуация и тенденции
  • Динамика ставки рефинансирования
  • Уровень инфляции
  • Инвестиционный климат в отрасли
  • Заграничные экономические системы и тенденции
  • Общие проблемы налогообложения
  • Налогообложение, определенное для продукта / услуг
  • Сезонность / влияние погоды
  • Рынок и торговые циклы
  • Платежеспособный спрос
  • Специфика производства
  • Товаропроводящие цепи и дистрибуция
  • Потребности конечного пользователя
  • Обменные курсы валют
  • Основные внешние издержки
    • Энергоносители
    • Транспорт
    • Сырье и комплектующие
    • Коммуникации
СОЦИОКУЛЬТУРНЫЕ ТЕНДЕНЦИИ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ИННОВАЦИИ
  • Демография
  • Изменения законодательства, затрагивающие социальные факторы
  • Структура доходов и расходов
  • Базовые ценности
  • Тенденции образа жизни
  • Бренд, репутация компании, имидж используемой технологии
  • Модели поведения покупателей
  • Мода и образцы для подражания
  • Главные события и факторы влияния
  • Мнения и отношение потребителей
  • Потребительские предпочтения
  • Представления СМИ
  • Точки контакта покупателей
  • Этнические / религиозные факторы
  • Реклама и связи с общественностью
  • Развитие конкурентных технологий
  • Финансирование исследований
  • Связанные / зависимые технологии
  • Замещающие технологии/решения
  • Зрелость технологий
  • Изменение и адаптация новых технологий
  • Производственная емкость, уровень
  • Информация и коммуникации, влияние интернета
  • Потребители, покупающие технологии
  • Законодательство по технологиям
  • Потенциал инноваций
  • Доступ к технологиям, лицензирование, патенты
  • Проблемы интеллектуальной собственности

 

 

Матеріали статті дозволяється використати відповідно до ліцензії GNU FDL без незмінюваних секцій та Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike

 

www.bfm-ua.com

Pest – анализ

Таблица 1

Оценка степени влияния факторов внешней среды

Факторы

Эксперты (степень влияния)

Средняя оценка

Весовой коэфф.

Э1

Э2

Э3

Э4

1. политический

изменение законодательства

2

3

3

2

2,5

0,05

смена политических партий

1

2

3

1

1,75

0,03

экспорт товара

4

4

2

3

3,25

0,08

уровень правовой грамотности

1

3

2

2

2

0,04

2. экономический

экономическая ситуация в стране

3

2

1

4

2,5

0,03

динамика курса валюты

4

3

2

1

2,5

0,04

налоговая политика

3

3

3

2

2,75

0,10

уровень доходов населения

4

5

5

4

4,5

0,11

3. природно-географический

климатические условия

3

4

4

2

3,5

0,10

экологическая обстановка в стране

3

2

4

3

3

0,07

природные катаклизмы

2

4

2

2

2,5

0,05

4. социальный

темп роста населения

3

2

5

5

3,75

0,08

средняя продолжительность жизни

2

2

2

5

2,75

0,07

низкий уровень дохода

4

3

3

3

3,25

0,09

Образование

2

3

3

1

2,25

0,06

Итого

 

 

 

 

42,75

1

Таблица 2

Степень вероятности влияния факторов внешней среды

Факторы

Весов.коэфф

Направленность влияния

Эксперты (вероятность влияния)

Средняя оценка

Взвешен.средняя

Э1

Э2

Э3

Э4

1. политический

изменение законодательства

0,05

+

3

3

1

3

2,5

0,125

смена политических партий

0,03

+

2

2

1

5

2,5

0,075

экспорт товара

0,08

+

4

3

3

3

3,25

0,26

уровень правовой грамотности

0,04

-

1

4

4

1

2,5

0,1

2. экономический

экономическая ситуация в стране

0,03

-

1

1

1

4

1,75

0,052

динамика курса валюты

0,04

+

5

2

2

2

2,75

0,11

налоговая политика

0,10

+

2

1

3

4

2,5

0,25

уровень доходов населения

0,11

+

5

3

4

1

3,25

0,35

3. природно-географический

климатические условия

0,10

-

4

2

5

5

4

0,4

экологическая обстановка в стране

0,07

+

2

3

4

2

2,75

0,192

природные катаклизмы

0,05

-

2

3

4

4

3,25

0,162

4. социальный

темп роста населения

0,08

+

1

3

4

5

3,25

0,26

средняя продолжительность жизни

0,07

-

2

2

4

1

2,25

0,157

низкий уровень дохода

0,09

+

3

3

3

4

6,5

0,58

образование

0,06

-

1

3

2

2

2

0,12

Результатом PEST – анализа является выбор основных факторов внешней макросреды, которые будут создавать возможности и угрозы для компании в прогнозируемом периоде.

Анализируя таблицу 2 можно сделать вывод, что:

- изменение законодательства позволяет воспользоваться благоприятными возможностями для завоевания ниш на рынке, расширение сферы деятельности;

- смена политических партий оказывает небольшое положительное  влияние. Этот фактор является возможностью укрепить позиции на рынке;

- экспорт товара способствует расширению сети спортивных магазинов за пределами РФ;

- экономическая нестабильность в стране является угрозой для компании в получении прибыли от продаж;

- динамика курса валют напрямую зависит от цен на продукцию и как следствие может влиять на спрос;

- от уровня доходов населения зависит объем закупаемой продукции, если население не способно позволить себе за счет низкого уровня доходов данный продукт, то закупки будут сокращены;

- природно-географические факторы отрицательно влияют на компанию, поэтому являются угрозой компании, в случае непредвиденных обстоятельств: наводнения различных катаклизм страдает экономика страны, наносится значительный моральный и материальный ущерб населению. Компания несет крупные потери;

- ограниченность природных ресурсов позволяет создавать новые технологии заменяющие ресурсы, которые компания может страховать. Следовательно, этот фактор позволит компании выйти на новые сегменты рынка.

- темп роста населения очень быстро возрос за последние три года. Этот фактор является возможностью для привлечения числа покупателей, и увеличение доли прибыли;

- образование является возможностью для компании получать  высококвалифицированных сотрудников, которые  могут грамотно и в кратчайшие сроки достигать намеченных целей;

studfiles.net


Смотрите также